The first introduction to psychology usually comes in the kind of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic understanding of psychology. They understand that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they physically function and, to a certain degree, how they act or what illnesses they might develop. But very few of these students have an understandable understanding of what exactly DNA is, where it is found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or altered.
In the case of development, the genes passed from one generation to the next only need to survive. Genes are nothing more than instructions for doing things. People, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to participate in behavior that is survival oriented. The foundation for this programming is the expression of certain genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behavior.
In terms of understanding what is going on genetically, we are still in the era of molecular biology. Within this frame, genes are simply packets of information carrying directions. This is how humans, plants and animals have been growing for centuries. However, in the past 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics provides a new lens through which we can view the relationships between behaviour and genes.
The molecular basis for behaviors and human memory is actually quite simple – it is all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a cellular memory storage which determines whether or not a behavior will be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behavior exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes inside the mobile memory storage of the person. The copy of the gene which determines the behaviour is called the epigome. It is this specific copy that we call the epigenome.
The importance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was revealed in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was discovered that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior that existed between people who had identical twins but whose traits were very different. This study provided the first evidence of the importance of the epigenome in human behavior and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Although the significance of this Epigenome in psychology has been established, many in the emotional field are reluctant to accept its potential as a significant factor in mental illness. One reason for this is it is hard to define a real genetic sequence or locus that leads to a behavioral disorder. Another issue is that there are just too many genetic differences between people to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, even though the research on the Epigenome has been promising, more work has to be done to determine the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it can be used as a foundation for studying other complicated diseases that have complicated genetic elements.
If you are interested in learning more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I strongly advise that you follow the links below. My site discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can also hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is focused on understanding the ecological causes of disease, but I have also been involved in analyzing the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future posts will also talk about diseases of the mind that can be affected by Epigenetics.