The first introduction to psychology usually comes in the form of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic understanding of psychology. They know that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they function and, to a certain extent, how they act or what illnesses they may develop. But very few of these students have a clear comprehension of what exactly DNA is, where it’s found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or altered.
In the case of evolution, the genes passed from one generation to the next only have to survive. Genes are nothing more than instructions for doing things. Humans, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that’s survival oriented. The basis for this programming is the expression of specific genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behavior.
Concerning understanding what is going on genetically, we’re still in the era of molecular biology. In this frame, genes are just packets of information carrying directions. This is how humans, plants and animals have been evolving for centuries. However, in the past 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics offers a new lens through which we can view the relationships between behaviour and genes.
The molecular basis for human and behaviors memory is actually quite simple – it’s all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a cellular memory storage which determines whether a behavior is going to be expressed or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behavior exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes inside the cellular memory storage of the person. The copy of the gene which determines the behavior is known as the epigome. It’s this particular copy that we call the epigenome.
The importance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was shown in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was found that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior that existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were very different. This study provided the first evidence of the significance of the epigenome in human behavior and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders like autism.
Although the significance of the Epigenome in psychology has been established, many in the psychological field are reluctant to accept its potential as a significant element in mental illness. 1 reason for this is it is hard to define an actual genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another issue is that there are simply too many genetic differences between people to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, even though the research on the Epigenome has been promising, more work has to be done to determine the role that genetics play in complex diseases like schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it may be used as a basis for analyzing other complicated diseases that have complex genetic elements.
If you are interested in learning more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I strongly advise that you follow the links below. My site discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can even hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is focused on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I also have been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future articles will also talk about diseases of the brain that can be affected by Epigenetics.