The first introduction to psychology usually comes in the kind of biology classes. Many biology students already come into class with at least basic knowledge of psychology. They understand that their genes determine how their bodies work, how they physically function and, to a certain degree, how they act or what illnesses they might develop. But very few of these students have an understandable understanding of what exactly DNA is, where it is found in the body, why it causes problems, and how it can be manipulated or altered.
In the case of evolution, the genes passed from one generation to the next just need to survive. Genes are merely instructions for doing things. People, as all living things, are programmed through thousands of years of natural selection to engage in behavior that’s survival oriented. The foundation for this programming is that the expression of specific genes that cause specific traits, such as aggressiveness, violence or sexuality. In the case of psychology, the genes that are passed on to us through our parents, grandparents, or other kin will determine such behaviour.
Concerning understanding what is going on genetically, we’re still in the era of molecular biology. In this framework, genes are simply packets of information carrying directions. This is the way humans, plants and animals have been evolving for centuries. However, in the last 50 years or so, a revolution in the field of psychology has occurred known as molecular biology or genomics. Genomics offers a new lens through which we can see the relationships between behavior and genes.
The molecular basis for human and behaviors memory is actually quite simple – it is all about the epigenome. The Epigenome is a mobile memory storage that determines whether or not a behavior is going to be voiced or not. Like all memory storage systems, it contains information that is “programmed” in advance by the genome.
What we now know is that the genetic material that determines behavior exists in all of us, but in varying quantities. Most of the variations come from the variation in the copies of genes within the cellular memory storage of the individual. The copy of the gene that determines the behaviour is called the epigome. It’s this specific copy that we call the epigenome.
The importance of the epigenome in psychology and its relationship to individual differences was shown in a landmark study on twins. For many years, autism research was based upon research on twins. However, it was discovered that there was substantial heritability (hitability) to behavior which existed between individuals who had identical twins but whose traits were quite different. This study provided the first evidence of the importance of the epigenome in human behaviour and its connection to abnormal behavioral disorders such as autism.
Even though the significance of this Epigenome in psychology was established, many in the psychological field are reluctant to accept its potential as a substantial element in mental illness. One reason for this is that it is difficult to define an actual genetic sequence or locus that causes a behavioral disorder. Another issue is that there are simply too many genetic differences between people to use a single DNA sequence to determine mental illness. Finally, although the study on the Epigenome has been promising, more work has to be done to determine the role that genetics play in complex diseases such as schizophrenia. If this finding holds true, it may be utilised as a basis for studying other complicated diseases that have complicated genetic elements.
If you’re interested in knowing more about Epigenetics and how it applies to psychology, I highly recommend that you follow the links below. My website discusses the exciting new technologies that are available today to better understand how Epigenetics affects behavior and the susceptibility to disease. You can also hear me speak on my epigenetics and autism blog. My research into Epigenetics is centered on understanding the environmental causes of disease, but I also have been involved in studying the relationship between Epigenetics and Autism. My future posts will also discuss diseases of the brain which can be impacted by Epigenetics.